Introduction The risk of earthquakes in California is high. Yet many buildings in the state are vulnerable to considerable damage from earthquakes. As you know, earthquakes cause negative impacts like death and extensive damage. To prevent this, all jurisdictions in the state allow voluntary seismic retrofitting. This is also known

In science, a mathematical model is needed to support every scientific assertion. This helps to justify the applicability of that assertion. In structural engineering, that model is in form of structural calculations. Although these calculations are sometimes overlooked in construction projects, they are very important. For instance, they give more

Introduction The last step in structural design is to prepare a structural drawing. A structural drawing contains details describing how a structure should be built. During the project implementation phase, these details must be followed. Other terms that describe structural drawing are; blueprints, construction plans, and structural plans. Remember, a